PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.4: CREATE INDEX

PostgreSQL: Documentation: 9.4: CREATE INDEX

时间:2015-06-08 13:08来源:网络整理 作者:KKWL 点击:
PostgreSQL 9.4.3 Documentation CREATEINDEX NameCREATE INDEX--define a new index Synopsis CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX [ CONCURRENTLY ] [ name ] ON table_name [ USING method ]( { column_name | ( expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [

PostgreSQL 9.4.3 Documentation


NameCREATE INDEX -- define a new index

Synopsis CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX [ CONCURRENTLY ] [ name ] ON table_name [ USING method ] ( { column_name | ( expression ) } [ COLLATE collation ] [ opclass ] [ ASC | DESC ] [ NULLS { FIRST | LAST } ] [, ...] ) [ WITH ( storage_parameter = value [, ... ] ) ] [ TABLESPACE tablespace_name ] [ WHERE predicate ]


CREATE INDEX constructs an index on the specified column(s) of the specified relation, which can be a table or a materialized view. Indexes are primarily used to enhance database performance (though inappropriate use can result in slower performance).

The key field(s) for the index are specified as column names, or alternatively as expressions written in parentheses. Multiple fields can be specified if the index method supports multicolumn indexes.

An index field can be an expression computed from the values of one or more columns of the table row. This feature can be used to obtain fast access to data based on some transformation of the basic data. For example, an index computed on upper(col) would allow the clause WHERE upper(col) = 'JIM' to use an index.

PostgreSQL provides the index methods B-tree, hash, GiST, SP-GiST, and GIN. Users can also define their own index methods, but that is fairly complicated.

When the WHERE clause is present, a partial index is created. A partial index is an index that contains entries for only a portion of a table, usually a portion that is more useful for indexing than the rest of the table. For example, if you have a table that contains both billed and unbilled orders where the unbilled orders take up a small fraction of the total table and yet that is an often used section, you can improve performance by creating an index on just that portion. Another possible application is to use WHERE with UNIQUE to enforce uniqueness over a subset of a table. See Section 11.8 for more discussion.

The expression used in the WHERE clause can refer only to columns of the underlying table, but it can use all columns, not just the ones being indexed. Presently, subqueries and aggregate expressions are also forbidden in WHERE. The same restrictions apply to index fields that are expressions.

All functions and operators used in an index definition must be "immutable", that is, their results must depend only on their arguments and never on any outside influence (such as the contents of another table or the current time). This restriction ensures that the behavior of the index is well-defined. To use a user-defined function in an index expression or WHERE clause, remember to mark the function immutable when you create it.



Causes the system to check for duplicate values in the table when the index is created (if data already exist) and each time data is added. Attempts to insert or update data which would result in duplicate entries will generate an error.


When this option is used, PostgreSQL will build the index without taking any locks that prevent concurrent inserts, updates, or deletes on the table; whereas a standard index build locks out writes (but not reads) on the table until it's done. There are several caveats to be aware of when using this option — see Building Indexes Concurrently.


The name of the index to be created. No schema name can be included here; the index is always created in the same schema as its parent table. If the name is omitted, PostgreSQL chooses a suitable name based on the parent table's name and the indexed column name(s).


The name (possibly schema-qualified) of the table to be indexed.


The name of the index method to be used. Choices are btree, hash, gist, spgist and gin. The default method is btree.


The name of a column of the table.


An expression based on one or more columns of the table. The expression usually must be written with surrounding parentheses, as shown in the syntax. However, the parentheses can be omitted if the expression has the form of a function call.


The name of the collation to use for the index. By default, the index uses the collation declared for the column to be indexed or the result collation of the expression to be indexed. Indexes with non-default collations can be useful for queries that involve expressions using non-default collations.


The name of an operator class. See below for details.


Specifies ascending sort order (which is the default).


Specifies descending sort order.


Specifies that nulls sort before non-nulls. This is the default when DESC is specified.


Specifies that nulls sort after non-nulls. This is the default when DESC is not specified.


The name of an index-method-specific storage parameter. See Index Storage Parameters for details.


The tablespace in which to create the index. If not specified, is consulted, or for indexes on temporary tables.


The constraint expression for a partial index.

Index Storage Parameters